“The Lives of the Twelve Caesars Complete” p. 168, [10] Jeffers, H. Paul. Caligula did not simply turn into an insane, violent, sexual deviant over night. He also died in exile with his mother. These happy times, however, were not long lived as a cloud of turmoil enveloped Caligula’s life. The Emperor Who was Loved and Sometimes Mocked . Before he was known as Caligula, he was known as Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus. Gaius was an army brat who was born in Germania, in the the base of his father Germanicus, a popular and charismatic Roman general. This evidence suggests two aspects about Caligula’s life. Together Caligula and Macro arranged for their assassination. Recent sources say that Caligula probably had encephalitis. What does it mean when there is no flag flying at the White House? Of Little Worth. The best known of these is the emperor Hadrian’s “villa” at Tivoli (pictured above; actually it’s the size of a small town). For the time being Caligula would have to wait until the right moment to strike back. Though it was never proven formally, it was known within the Roman public that Germanicus’ controversial death produced feelings of “hatred against Tiberius and Livia, and suspicions that they had plotted the murder along with Piso and his wife.”[2]This event was no doubt a traumatic one for the young boy Caligula. Since the day he was born into the imperial family, Caligula lived in a state of fear and apprehension. Caligula’s father Germanicus, in an effort to further his popularity and expand control, began to visit Egypt regularly by 18CE. Regarding this relationship Suetonius stated “There never was a better servant, nor a worse master.”[9] From this evidence one can see the fragile nature of Caligula and Tiberius’ relationship. Caligula, Roman emperor from 37 to 41 CE, who succeeded Tiberius and transferred the last legion under a senatorial proconsul to an imperial legate, completing the emperor’s monopoly of army command. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Around the same time Caligula usurped the throne from Tiberius in 37CE he came down with a sudden illness. Historical accounts of Caligula may vary, but nearly all historians agreed on one dark fact: this deranged emperor placed very little value on human life.In one twisted story, Caligula was supposedly meant to sacrifice a bull to the gods by hitting it over the head with a huge mallet. “Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook, Volume 1” p. 2108, [8] Grant, Michael. Ancient sources, like Suetonius and Cassius Dio, describe Caligula having a "brain fever". He stated “Amongst the people the remembrance of Germanicus’ virtues cherished for his family an attachment which was probably, increased by its misfortunes; and they were anxious to see revived in the son the popularity of the father.”[11]Suetonius’ account is evidence that Caligula’s initial popularity was garnered by the achievements of his father and the public sympathized with the misfortune of his family’s demise. After his illness, Caligula became a vicious tyrant. Music by: Carlo Maria Cordio: Cinematography: Joe D'Amato: Edited by: Vanio Amici What are the difference between Japanese music and Philippine music? With growing fears of possible insurrection, Tiberius shifted his focus to Caligula’s other brother Drusus who, infuriated by the death of his father, had begun to conspire against him. In the same year Caligula gained the quaestorship his first wife, Junia Claudilla, died in childbirth. Published: 1st Jan 1970 in Gaius's brothers were Nero and Drusus. Caligula’s progress towards usurping Tiberius’ power, however, was met with another emotionally traumatic event. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. It is important to note Caligula’s obedience was probably due to fear of what Tiberius might do to his sisters if he refused. Caligula’s suffering, however, had just begun to escalate. Then imagine having to harbor such atrocities and hardships internally with no time for remorse. Finally freed from being the “pampered prisoner” of his father’s murderer, Caligula was a loved and welcomed emperor. 9. There were a number of freedmen in his close circle who attained considerable influence: Helicon, his chamberlain; Apelles, a tragic actor; and most wealthy and powerful of all, Callistus, a kind of imperial secretary. Caligula’s notoriety as an unhinged, bloodthirsty Roman emperor may not tell the whole story. Still, Caligula held himself together for the time being and waited for his opportunity to seize power from Tiberius. To hasten Tiberius’ death and prevent Tiberius’ grandson Gemellus from seizing power Caligula conspired against them with his chamberlain Naevius Sutorius Macro. This madness, however, did not suddenly overcome Caligula in a “brain-fever” during his time as emperor as early historians suggested occurred in 38 AD. [13], Caligula’s legacy has long been a topic focused on the insanity, violence, and scandal that occurred during his reign as emperor. One could say with certainty that such internal pain could lead to a whirl-wind of self destruction and violent tendencies later in life. Caligula's father, Germanicus, was Emperor Tiberius's (42 B.C.E. Caligula’s madness only became more severe in the years after his illness. This event, however, is best described by modern historian Geoff W. Adams. New evidence has led one to believe that the madness that Caligula experienced was a result of a series of traumatic events over his life rather than a single event that occurred during his reign as Emperor. Copyright © 2003 - 2021 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Elements of Caligula’s madness during his reign were reflected in his violent unpredictability, sexual promiscuity (including his sister whom he continued incestuous relations), and crude behavior towards his peers. Baiae was an integral part Portus Julius, home port of the Western Imperial Fleet of ancient Rome, and towards the end of the Roman Republic it was a fashionable resort, popular with the super-rich, and notorious for the ‘hedonistic temptations’ on offer, and for rumours of scandal and corruption. It was publicly known in Rome that Caligula adored his sister perhaps a little too much. When studying Caligula’s reign, however, one can overlook the underlying causes of Caligula’s madness. –37 B.C.E. ) 'Caligula', more properly Gaius (Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus), was the third Roman emperor, in succession to Tiberius. Caligula also remembered this moment with silent reproach against Tiberius and waited patiently for revenge. “The Annals” p. 177, [5] Wells, Colin Micheal. Brain fever is an inflammation or infection of the brain which causes a fever. Caligula: Mad, bad, and maybe a little misunderstood. In response to this Tiberius appealed to Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the governor of Syria, to prevent Germanicus from gaining power abroad. Even febrile seizures, which occur in children, do not cause any permanent damage. He was the great-grandson of Julius Caesar. This illness was not the only agent involved in Caligula’s behavioral change, but rather an amalgam of events beginning in his childhood. To silence Caligula’s mother, according to modern historian Peter Roberts, Tiberius had her tried for treason and then “banished to Pandataria Island off the Campanian coast where she died of starvation in 33.”[3] Along with Agrippina, Tiberius also banished Caligula’s Brother Nero. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! His mad legacy further revealed the psychological damage that was done unto Caligula during the course of his traumatic life. The most (in)famous depiction of Caligula’s life is still banned in Canada and Iceland. One source sums this event up by stating “Macro, smothered Tiberius, and then arranged the killing of the next in line to succeed Tiberius, a grandson named Gemmelus.”[10]With his revenge complete and Tiberius out of the way, Caligula took his position as Roman Emperor. Therefore, contrary to the story conveyed by Suetonius and Cassius, the illness played a lesser role in Caligula’s madness. Caligulas father, Germanicus, was the grandson of the well-regarded Emperor Augustus and the nephew of Emperor Tiberius, the adopted son and the successor to his father’s throne of power. The evidence also indicates that these problems were affecting Caligula well before he was emperor. Tiberius had Drusus imprisoned and left him to die in the most horrid conditions. “The Roman Empire.” p. 108, [6] Tranquillus, Gaius Suetonius. This made Caligula the grandson of Tiberius and placed him in the advantageous position to inherit the throne. See Julio-Claudian family tree. Discover the meaning of the Caligula name on Ancestry®. With Augustus had come the beginning of a new Roman rule, one under a single leader, that also pushed Rome’s ruling elite somewhat into chaos. It looks like he suffered some kind of brain damage from this extended sickness—maybe a prolonged high fever, but that’s just my guess. Enter Caligula the Cruel Late in 37 A.D., Caligula fell ill with some sort of brain fever. If your impeached can you run for president again? The account leads one to believe that Caligula was developing habits considered to be socially deviant within his society. Together Tiberius and Piso conspired against Germanicus and, while in Syria, Germanicus fell ill due to poisoning by Piso. Adams summed up this type of thought by stating “Both Suetonius and Dio Cassius attribute [or at least infer] that the alteration of Gaius Caligula’s character occurred following from the illness he suffered during AD 38.”[12] This evidence leads one to believe that many early historians portrayed Caligula’s madness as a result of this disease. “The Lives of the Twelve Caesars” p. 292, [12] Adams, Geoff W. “The Roman Emperor Gaius ‘Caligula’ and His Hellenistic Aspirations.” p. 150, [13] Richard, Carl J. The mental conditions that existed prior could have been exacerbated by the illness that Caligula experience. A. Talbert wrote: “Yet within a year Gaius fell seriously ill, perhaps with a brain fever, and, although he recovered, his erratic behavior escalated. Gaius was brought up among the soldiers his father commanded on the Rhine, a river in central Europe. “Twelve Greeks and Romans who Changed the World” p.208, [14] Howe, Randy. His mother, Agrippina,was the granddaughter of Emperor Augustus (63 b.c.e.–14 C. E.). Copyright © 2021 Multiply Media, LLC. Tiberius’ actions lead one to believe that he was systematically tearing Caligula’s family apart to prevent any and all opposition. For the first six months he was a good ruler, but that all changed when he became ill with what was described at the time as a "brain fever." Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? nephew, adopted son, and heir who would inherit his father's throne. Incest was not the only warning of growing mental instability within Caligula. In suppressing his boiling hatred and upholding a façade of humble obedience, Caligula manipulated Tiberius into giving him the honorary position of quaestor in 33CE. Gaius was born in A.D. 12, in Antium (Modern-day Anzio), the third of six children. Evidence such as this serves as a reminder that one should always ask questions and investigate when presented with material claiming to be ‘fact.’, [1] Boatwright, Mary T. “A Brief History of the Romans” p. 203, [2] Barrett, Anthony A, “Caligula: The Corruption of Power” p. 15, [3] Roberts, Peter. Caligula's father, Germanicus, was Emperor Tiberius's (42 b.c.e.–37 b.c.e.) Afterward, his behavior changed. Given Caligula’s past, however, one cannot charge his madness to this single event. The nickname stuc… Caligula was only 25-years-old when he became the emperor of Rome in 37 AD. Suetonius stated that Caligula “as a boy he was troubled with the falling sickness [presumably epilepsy].”[6]Epilepsy may have played a major role in the onset of madness within Caligula. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. This was only the beginning of a series of hardships Caligula was forced to endure. “Sick Caesars.” p. 34, [9] Tranquillus, Gaius Suetonius. … Evidence of this type of thought comes from the writings of Suetonius and Dio Cassius. All work is written to order. Surprisingly, Tiberius had Caligula educated and even took him under his personal care in 31 CE on the island of Capri. What is the WPS button on a wireless router? One medical source stated that epilepsy can cause traits of “irresponsibility and impaired impulse control, neglect of duties, self-interest, emotional instability, exaggeration, inconsiderateness, quick temper, and distractibility,” and also includes “sleep deprivation.”[7] Aggression and self interest are the apparent traits one finds in Caligula but it was also well know that he suffered from insomnia. Therefore, one can conclude that early signs of Caligula’s mental instability, demonstrated through his incestuous habits, occurred because of trauma from his childhood and began well before the alleged sickness changed him.

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